Brain injury can be both focal or diffuse, when diffuse it takes four principal forms, although only three of these forms involve patients who have any chance of survival.
- Diffuse axonal brain injury; for more information, click here.
- Diffuse hypoxic/anoxic/ischemic injury;
- Diffuse swelling and
- Diffuse vascular injury.
Diffuse axonal injury (DAI) is the one that is gaining the most attention. Part of the reason for the focus on the DAI is undoubtedly its relationship in its less severe forms, to mild traumatic brain injury.
To understand why concussion can leave permanent problems, it is helpful to DAI. Understanding axonal injury, involves microbiology of the brain and its core cell, the neuron.